Continue with last article, only paste code here:

IcmpSendEcho() is used to send ICMP messages which does not require administrator privilege. I summarize all cases in which raw socket, icmp api or system ping approach may fail:

raw socket icmp api system ping
Windows XP Administrator OK OK OK
User WSAEACCES in sendto() OK OK
Guest WSAEACCES in sendto() OK OK
Windows 7 Administrator WSAEACCES in socket() OK OK
User WSAEACCES in socket() OK OK
Guest WSAEACCES in socket() ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED in IcmpCreateFile() Unable to contact IP driver. General failure.
Run as Administrator OK OK OK

You may ask what’s the difference between “Administrator” and “Run as Administrator”, the answer comes from stackoverflow:

– When an user from the administrator group logs on, the user is allocated two tokens: a token with all privileges, and a token with reduced privileges. When that user creates a new process, the process is by default handed the reduced privilege token. So, although the user has administrator rights, she does not exercise them by default. This is a “Good Thing”.

– To exercise those rights the user must start the process with elevated rights. For example, by using the “Run as administrator” verb. When she does this, the full token is handed to the new process and the full range of rights can be exercised.

A ping utility is used to check the availability of a remote host. I wanted to implement the function in my project. But it is not so easy as I had expected. Since administrator/root privilege is required to create a raw socket under windows/linux, and this is not what I want.

Finally, I chose to utilize system’s ping via CreateProcess()/execve() function. Under windows, ping may used IcmpSendEcho() API to wrap the creation of a raw socket, and this does not require administrator privilege. But it is still not working when logged in as a guest. Under linux, ping is a +s(setuid) utility, which means it is always run with root privilege. Anyway, I still tried to implement ping by using raw socket and sending raw ICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol) messages.

A raw ICMP echo request message has a ICMP header, while a raw ICMP echo reply message has an additional IP header in front of the ICMP header. Say:

There are several ICMP message types defined in RFC 792, but we only care about the echo type. So here’s our definition of a IP header and a ICMP header:

Our customized ICMP echo request/reply definition with self-defined data field:

The raw socket is created with:

Sending a ICMP echo request:

We simply use the checksum algorithm found in the original ping program from Mike Muuss.

Now, receiving a ICMP echo reply:

You may have noticed the if/else clause in the receive function. The use_icmp_socket flag is used to tell which socket type is used when sending a ICMP message. In linux kernel 3.0, a new socket type is introduced to reduce the possibility to use a raw socket that only send ICMP echo messages. Thus, the classic ping utility can be no longer a +s(setuid) one. A ICMP socket can be created with:

Note the difference in the second parameter. A kernel parameter(/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ping_group_range) in comment above should be set to indicate which UID range is allowed to use a ICMP socket.

When using a raw socket, the TTL value is in the IP header. While, the TTL value is in the socket ancillary data when using a ICMP socket, the reply data does not contain IP header any more. And we must set a socket option explicitly to retrieve the TTL value:

Let’s put them all together:

All code compiles and works under Ubuntu 12.04(gcc4.6), Windows XP(VS2005) and Windows 7(VS2010) with administrator/root privilege. After enabling the ICMP socket parameter, root privilege is not required under linux. The output may look like:

– RFC 791:
– RFC 792:
– Implement ping in C:
– Raw Socket and ICMP:
– Linux Kernel 3.0:
– IPv4: Add ICMP Socket Kind:
– Patch for Userspace ping:
– Wine Implementation: