# Jump Instruments and EFLAGS

There was a misleading in my knowledge of a conditional jump: It checks only the result of `CMP` and `TEST` instruments. So when it appears after other instruments like `ADD` or `SUB`, I can find no clue on how it works.

Actually, a conditional jump checks flags in the EFLAGS control register. From Intel’s manual, vol 1, 3.4.3:

The status flags (bits 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11) of the EFLAGS register indicate the results of arithmetic instructions, such as the ADD, SUB, MUL, and DIV instructions. The status flag functions are:

CF (bit 0) Carry flag: Set if an arithmetic operation generates a carry or a borrow out of the most-significant bit of the result; cleared otherwise. This flag indicates an overflow condition for unsigned-integer arithmetic. It is also used in multiple-precision arithmetic.

PF (bit 2) Parity flag: Set if the least-significant byte of the result contains an even number of 1 bits; cleared otherwise.
AF (bit 4) Adjust flag: Set if an arithmetic operation generates a carry or a borrow out of bit 3 of the result; cleared otherwise. This flag is used in binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic.

ZF (bit 6) Zero flag: Set if the result is zero; cleared otherwise.

SF (bit 7) Sign flag: Set equal to the most-significant bit of the result, which is the sign bit of a signed integer. (0 indicates a positive value and 1 indicates a negative value.)

OF (bit 11) Overflow flag: Set if the integer result is too large a positive number or too small a negative number (excluding the sign-bit) to fit in the destination operand; cleared otherwise. This flag indicates an overflow condition for signed-integer (two’s complement) arithmetic.

And again from vol 2a, section Jcc Jump if Condition is met, more details. I just copy content from here:

Instruction Description signed? Flags short
jump
opcodes
near
jump
opcodes
JO Jump if overflow OF = 1 70 0F 80
JNO Jump if not overflow OF = 0 71 0F 81
JS Jump if sign SF = 1 78 0F 88
JNS Jump if not sign SF = 0 79 0F 89
JE
JZ
Jump if equal
Jump if zero
ZF = 1 74 0F 84
JNE
JNZ
Jump if not equal
Jump if not zero
ZF = 0 75 0F 85
JB
JNAE
JC
Jump if below
Jump if not above or equal
Jump if carry
unsigned CF = 1 72 0F 82
JNB
JAE
JNC
Jump if not below
Jump if above or equal
Jump if not carry
unsigned CF = 0 73 0F 83
JBE
JNA
Jump if below or equal
Jump if not above
unsigned CF = 1 or ZF = 1 76 0F 86
JA
JNBE
Jump if above
Jump if not below or equal
unsigned CF = 0 and ZF = 0 77 0F 87
JL
JNGE
Jump if less
Jump if not greater or equal
signed SF <> OF 7C 0F 8C
JGE
JNL
Jump if greater or equal
Jump if not less
signed SF = OF 7D 0F 8D
JLE
JNG
Jump if less or equal
Jump if not greater
signed ZF = 1 or SF <> OF 7E 0F 8E
JG
JNLE
Jump if greater
Jump if not less or equal
signed ZF = 0 and SF = OF 7F 0F 8F
JP
JPE
Jump if parity
Jump if parity even
PF = 1 7A 0F 8A
JNP
JPO
Jump if not parity
Jump if parity odd
PF = 0 7B 0F 8B
JCXZ
JECXZ
Jump if %CX register is 0
Jump if %ECX register is 0
%CX = 0
%ECX = 0
E3 E3

There are signed and unsigned versions when comparing: `JA` Vs `JG`, `JB` Vs `JL` etc.. Let’s take `JA` and `JG` to explain the difference. For `JA`, it’s clear that it requires CF=0(no borrow bit) and ZF=0(not equal). For `JG`, when two operands are both positive or negative, it requires ZF=0 and SF=OF=0. When two operands have different signs, it requires ZF=0 and the first operand is positive, thus requires SF=OF=1.

Note, the following 2 lines(AT&T syntax) are equivalent. CPU does arithmetic calculation, it does not care about whether it is signed or unsigned. It only set flags. It is we that make the signed or unsigned jump decision.

Last, I’d like to use `ndisasm`(install `nasm` package to get it) to illustrate how jump instruments are encoded, including short jump, near jump and far jump: