MSVC Inline Assembly

MSVC’s inline assembly is easier to use, as compared to gcc’s version. It is easier to write right code than wrong one, I think. Still a simple add function is used to illustrate:

The corresponding inline version:

__asm keyword is used to specify a inline assembly block. From MSDN, there is another asm keyword which is not recommended:

Visual C++ support for the Standard C++ asm keyword is limited to the fact that the compiler will not generate an error on the keyword. However, an asm block will not generate any meaningful code. Use __asm instead of asm.

Symbols in C/C++ code can be used directly in inline assembly. This is much more convenient than gcc. And it is also not necessary to load parameters into registers before usage as in gcc. MSVC does the job right even in optimization case.

NOTE: Inline assembly is not supported on the Itanium and x64 processors.

Let’s see the generated code:

Output:

Function parameters are located in [ebp+12] and [ebp+8] as referred by symbol a and b. Then, what happened if registers other than scratch registers are specified?

Output assembly code:

As you see, MSVC automatically preserves ebx for us. From MSDN:

When using __asm to write assembly language in C/C++ functions, you don’t need to preserve the EAX, EBX, ECX, EDX, ESI, or EDI registers.

Let’s see the case when stdcall calling convention is used:

Output:

In stdcall, stack is cleaned up by callee. So, there’s a ret 8 before return. And the function name is mangled to _add4@8.

MSVC also supports fastcall calling convention, but it causes register conflicts as mentioned on MSDN, and is not recommended. Just test it here, the code happens to work:)

Output:

Function parameters are passed in ecx and edx when using fastcall. But they are saved to stack first. It seems we get no benefit using this calling convention. Maybe MSVC does not implement it well. The function name is mangled to @add5@8.

Last, we can tell MSVC that we want to write our own prolog/epilog code sequences using __declspec(naked) directive:

Output:

Normal prolog/epilog is used here. MSVC does not generate duplicate these code when using __declspec(naked) directive.

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